Working of Electric Motor and its uses

Study the workings and uses of electric motors. Examine their effectiveness, variety, and contribution to environmentally responsible transportation. To be powered by electric motors.


Electric motor is a fundamental device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy. The majority of electric motors function by producing torque that is applied to the motor shaft through the interaction of the motor’s magnetic field and the electric current flowing through a wire winding.  These motors can be categorized based on factors such the type of power source, design, use, and type of motion output. In addition to being AC or DC powered, brushed or brushless, single-phase, two-phase, or three-phase, axial or radial flux, air-cooled or liquid-cooled, and using any kind of cooling system, they are also capable of being manufactured.

Electric Motor Construction

The electric motor construction can be done using the rotor, bearings, stator, air gap, windings, commutator, etc.


The moving element in an electric motor is called a rotor, and its primary job is to rotate the motor’s shaft in order to provide mechanical power. Typically, the rotor has conductors that are positioned to convey currents and interact with the stator’s magnetic field.


The motor’s bearings primarily provide the rotor with support so that it can activate its axis. With the aid of its bearings, the motor’s shaft enlarges to accommodate its load. The load is referred to as suspended when the load forces are applied outside of the bearing.


The inactive portion of the electromagnetic circuit is the stator of the motor. It contains windings or permanent magnets. Different laminations, or thin metal sheets, can be used to construct the stator. These are mostly employed to lower energy losses.

Air gap

The area between the stator and the rotor is known as the air gap. The air gap’s impact is primarily dependent on the gap. It is the main cause of the motor’s poor power factor. Magnetizing current also increases when the air gap between the stator and rotor widens. This suggests that the air gap should be smaller.


In motors, windings are wires that are arranged inside coils and typically wrapped around a flexible iron magnetic core to create magnetic poles when powered by current. Copper is the most commonly utilized material in motor windings. The most popular material for windings is copper, while aluminum is sometimes used and should be solid to securely carry a similar electrical load.


On a ferromagnetic core, wire windings make up the armature. The magnetic field from the field magnet exerts a force on the wire when an electric current flows through it, spinning the rotor and producing the mechanical output. When wires are powered with current, they are often wound around a laminated, soft, iron, ferromagnetic core to create windings, which produce magnetic poles.


The motor’s commutator, which is made of copper, is a half-ring. This links the brushes in the direction of the coil for its primary purpose. The use of commutator rings ensures that the direction of current flow within the coil reverses every half-cycle, pushing one surface of the coil regularly upwards and the other surface downward.

How are electric motors working?

A magnetic field is produced when an electric current flows through the coils in the stator. The rotor rotates as a result of the interaction between this magnetic field and the rotor’s magnetic field. The device or machine in which the motor is mounted is powered by the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy caused by this rotational motion.

Types of Electric Motor

The two types of electrical motors that are most frequently utilized today are ac motors and dc motors.

1.AC Motor

There are three categories of AC motors: induction, synchronous, and linear.

  • Single-phase induction motors and three-phase induction motors are the two categories into which they fall.
  • Hysteresis and reluctance motors are the two types of synchronous motors.

2.DC Motor

Self-excited motors and independently excited motors are the two categories under which DC motors fall.

  • Series, compound, and shunt motors are the three types of self-excited motors.
  • The two types of compound motors are short-shunt and long-shunt motors.

Principle of an Electric Motor

The Electric motor (also known as a DC motor) operates on the idea that when an electric current is sent through a conductor that is generally placed in a magnetic field, a force acts on the conductor, causing the conductor to start moving and producing mechanical energy. DC motors work on the principles of Electromagnetism but other types of engines work on the principle of Internal Combustion.

Uses of Electric Motor

Electric motors in bikes:

Electric bikes are one of the most popular uses for electric motors. Electric motors are used in electric bikes, sometimes referred to as e-bikes, to either help the rider’s riding or provide independent propulsion. An e-bike’s electric motor aids in increasing speed, tackling hills with ease, and lowering the amount of work needed when riding. In comparison to conventional bicycles, electric bikes are more efficient and environmentally friendly.

Electric motorcycles:

This innovative use of electric motor technology is yet another. Internal combustion engines are not necessary because these motorcycles run totally or in part on electric motors. Benefits of electric motorcycles include quick torque, decreased noise levels, and no tailpipe emissions. Electric motorcycles are becoming more capable and popular as a sustainable and high-performance source of transportation because of developments in battery technology.

Electric Motors on Bicycles:

It is now possible to retrofit existing bicycles with electric motors using electric motor conversion kits. With the help of these kits, cyclists can convert their regular bicycles into electric-powered machines. Riders can benefit from electric propulsion while still having the mobility and flexibility of conventional transportation by upgrading their bicycle with an electric motor.

Electric Motors in Cars:

Motors are now widely used in the automobile industry as a vital part of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electric motors in automobiles offer a variety of advantages, such as high efficiency, immediate torque, and minimal environmental impact. Electric motors drive the wheels of electric and hybrid vehicles, which also enhances overall performance. Electric motors play a crucial role in accelerating the shift to cleaner, greener transportation as sustainability becomes an increasingly important topic.

Diverse Industrial Applications for Electric Motors:

This type of Motors are widely used in several industrial applications. Conveyor belts, pumps, compressors, and fans are just a few of the items they power. The high efficiency, dependability, and controllability of electric motors make them essential in manufacturing, construction, and other industries.


Electric motors are amazing inventions that have greatly improved a variety of aspects of our lives. Electric motors are a key component in the powering of a variety of machinery and equipment, from transportation to industrial uses. They have made a huge contribution to our modern society, which we may appreciate by comprehending how they operate and the variety of uses for which they are used.


Can electric motors be used in applications involving water?

With the necessary waterproofing techniques and motor design, electric motors can be employed in water-based applications. Boats, submersible vehicles, and water pumps frequently use electric motors intended for use in the water.

Compared to other motor types, are electric motors more energy-efficient?

High energy efficiency is a well-known characteristic of electric motors. Electric motors can convert more electrical energy into mechanical energy than internal combustion engines can, which reduces energy waste and lowers running costs.

What is the lifespan of an electric motor?

An electric motor’s lifespan might vary depending on factors including usage, maintenance, and operating circumstances. Electric motors can last for several decades with the right upkeep and care.

Can the performance of an electric motor be enhanced over time?

Yes, the performance of electric motors continues to be improved through ongoing study and technical advancements. An improvement in efficiency, power production, and overall performance is a result of innovations in motor design, materials, and control systems.

What benefits do electric motors have over internal combustion engines?
Compared to combustion engines, electric motors have a number of benefits, such as greater energy economy, fewer maintenance needs, lower noise levels, and a lack of exhaust emissions, which has a positive influence on the environment.

Are maintenance costs for gas-powered motorcycles higher than those for electric motorcycles?
Compared to motorcycles fueled by gasoline, electric motorcycles often require less maintenance. Electric motors require less maintenance and replacement because they have fewer moving parts, which also implies less wear and tear.